What is Dehydrated Garlic?
Dried garlic is the dry powder obtained from garlic bulbs. It is characterized by a pungent and pleasant flavor, characteristic of the compound allicin. Garlic products are used for culinary and medical purposes. In baking, it’s added to breads, rolls, pizza and other savory goods.
Dried garlic can be found in a broad variety of forms such as:
- Slices: particle size smaller than 4 mm
- Flakes or pieces: particle size between 1.25 – 4 mm
- Grits: particle size between 0.25 – 1.25 mm
- Powdered garlic: particle size 0.25 mm or smaller
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) dates back to Ancient Egyptian times over 4000 years ago. The crop is thought to have originated in Central Asia and Southern Europe. This ancient bulb crop was carried to the western hemisphere by the Spanish, Portuguese and French expeditions.
Garlic crop is the second most important and widely cultivated Allium crop after onion. Currently, garlic is produced worldwide in most subtropical regions. China, Iran, India, Korea and Egypt are the main producers of garlic in the world.
Garlic has many functions in baked goods:
- Flavor: provides a pungent and spicy flavor that tends to become sweet when cooked.
- Aroma: provides a pleasant characteristic aroma.
- Texture: some dehydrated garlic varieties, especially minced or flaked, are considered inclusions and can provide a different texture or mouthfeel.
- Staling: may retard staling due to its anti-fungal and antibiotic activities.
- Hydration capacity: can slightly increase hydration capacity of wheat flour
- Dough stability: may affect dough stability while mixing and baking due to the presence of thiol compounds that may disrupt protein matrix
Garlic has a high nutritional value compared to other bulb crops. It is rich in proteins, carbohydrates and minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium. Garlic has been used throughout history for people with cardiovascular complications. Other benefits of garlic include its role in reducing cholesterol and lowering high blood pressure. Garlic can also aid in reducing the incidence of colon and stomach cancer. Allicin, the compound responsible for garlic’s flavor and aroma is throughout to be a powerful antioxidant.
Dehydrated garlic can be obtained through the following process:
- Washing: harvested bulbs are washed to remove contaminants
- Separation: cloves are separated and their skin removed
- Sterilization: cloves are sterilized by flame or alkali
- Size reduction: cloves are chopped and/or sliced
- Drying: garlic slices are dried with hot air at 60 °C (140°F) to reduce moisture content to approx. 8%
- Bin drying: garlic flakes are further dried down to 6.5% moisture with warm air
- Size reduction: flakes size can be reduced by passing through different size sieves to obtain a wide variety of dehydrated garlic products
Dehydrated garlic is used as a condiment in various baked goods. Mainly, garlic bread, croutons, rolls and pizza dough flavoring. Powdered garlic is usually added when garlic flavor is desired, while minced or flaked garlic is added for texture and mouthfeel to some baked goods. Also, it can be added during dough preparation with other ingredients or topically to the finished product.
Studies on the rheological properties of doughs containing garlic solids, have shown that addition of garlic to wheat flour doughs strongly decreases resistance to deformation and causes rapid breakdown during mixing. Similarly to aggressive reducing agents (e.g. L-cysteine, sorbic acid), adding garlic to bread formulations quickly results in diminished gas retention capacity which supposes a weakening effect on the gluten network.
Dried Garlic Benefits
Just like other ‘sensitive’ ingredients used in breadmaking (e.g. citric acid, sorbic acid), encapsulation of garlic with a stable lipid matrix could be a possible solution for controlling the detrimental effects of garlic during mixing and proofing.
With a sharp flavor that’s just as welcome in custom-made steak rubs as it is in homemade soups and broths, granulated dried garlic — coarsely ground dried garlic powder — makes a useful addition to your pantry. Although it lacks some of the advantages associated with fresh garlic, such as anti-bacterial activity, granulated garlic still offers a number of health benefits. Use it in your cooking to boost your intake of essential minerals.
Granulated dried garlic helps increase your iron intake. Iron plays an important role in supporting an active lifestyle. It boosts energy production so that your tissues have access to the fuel they need, and also aids in oxygen transport, providing oxygen essential for cellular metabolism. Getting enough iron in your diet prevents anemia, which can lead to fatigue, shortness of breath and a rapid heart rate. A 2-tablespoon serving of granulated dried garlic contains 1.1 milligrams of iron — 14 percent of the recommended daily intake for men and 6 percent for women, according to the Institute of Medicine.
Cooking with granulated dried garlic also boosts your copper intake. Each 2-tablespoon serving contains 190 micrograms of copper, or 21 percent of your daily copper intake requirements, set by the Institute of Medicine. Consuming copper helps your nervous system function properly. It allows for the production of neurotransmitters — chemicals that relay signals between brain cells — and helps you make fatty acids needed to make myelin, a substance that preserves nerve function. Like iron, copper supports an active lifestyle by playing a role in energy production.
Consume granulated dried garlic as a source of manganese. The manganese from your diet supports skeletal health — it activates a family of enzymes, called glycosyltransferases, that promote healthy cartilage and bone development. Manganese also increases collagen production — an essential step for wound healing — acts as an antioxidant and supports your metabolism. Each 2-tablespoon serving of granulated garlic contains 0.2 milligrams of manganese. This provides 9 percent of the daily recommended manganese intake for men and 11 percent for women, according to the Institute of Medicine.
Granulated dried garlic also serves as a moderate source of phosphorus, one of the most abundant minerals in your body. Phosphorus promotes healthy kidney function and allows your cells to make ATP, a source of energy. It keeps your bones and teeth healthy and also helps you produce DNA. Consuming 2 tablespoons of granulated dried garlic boosts your phosphorus intake by 80 milligrams, or 11 percent of the recommended daily intake set by the Institute of Medicine.